Vincent Van Gogh's Paysage sous un ciel mouvemente is valued at $50m-70m ahead of a sale at Sotheby's.
It will highlight the November 5 impressionist and modern art evening sale in New York.
The piece dates to April 1889, when Van Gogh was living in Arles. It was here he developed his distinctive style, inspired by the light of southern France.
Sotheby's comments: "Van Gogh's dramatically atmospheric Paysage sous un ciel mouvemente is one of the finest of the artist's Arles landscapes�Ǫ
"This painting was completed only two months before Van Gogh executed what is arguably his most celebrated work, The Starry Night, now in the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
"Paysage sous un ciel mouvemente can be considered the thundering precursor to the MoMA picture and the first act of Van Gogh's grand celestial exploration."
A few months after Van Gogh painted the present work he would host Gauguin at his home in Arles, an event that culminated in him cutting off his own ear.
Van Gogh is one of the world's most famous artists and always attracts strong bids at auction.
Last year a still life titled Vase aux Marguerites et Coquelicots (1890) sold for $61.8m at Sotheby's New York.
His L'Allee des Alyscamps (1888) made $66.3m earlier this year.
Picasso's La Gommeuse, from his blue period, is also featured with a valuation of $60m.
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